fbpx
Spread the love

The Toyota Cresta is a mid-luxury JDM Sedan made by Toyota from 1980 to 2001. It sits slightly below the Toyota Crown when it comes to luxurious, however most patrons choose the Cresta over the Crown. Cresta is taken from the Italian phrase Cresta which merely means the highest feathers on a chicken’s head. 

Italian rulers additionally wore crest crowns which signified Sovereignty however had been much less superior to the King’s Crown. In comparison with the Toyota Mark II or Toyota Chaser, the Cresta sits above them relating to dealing with and efficiency regardless of sharing the identical engine and transmission choices. 

The Cresta by no means bought that properly in Japan is that Japanese legal guidelines had ridiculous tax laws for long-wheelbase automobiles with engines with over 2.0 liters of displacement. Promoting the primary technology wasn’t that tough as most had 2.0-liter engines and a shorter wheelbase than different generations. However with time, increased displacement engines such because the 1G, 1JZ, and 2JZ got here into manufacturing, and the wheelbase was elevated. 

Toyota began utilizing these engines, forcing the Cresta to be exported extra. Just a few fashions with 2.0-liter engines had been bought in Japan. The Toyota Crown stays a Japan lenient mannequin primarily bought in Japan and different RHD nations. On the identical time, the US market will get the Camry and different Toyota Corolla fashions.

Being the sportiest within the Toyota Luxurious sedan lineup, the Cresta was fitted with a supercharger in its third technology, X80. Toyota additionally launched a two-tone color paint to make it sportier and extra interesting to youthful patrons. Most prospects who purchased the Cresta had been businessmen or businesswomen and corporates searching for luxurious sedans. 

You’ll be able to flip a Toyota Cresta right into a present automotive, drift automotive, or a each day driver when you can navigate round city in a “boat.” Most JDM sedans have a protracted wheelbase, and the Cresta is a type of with shorter wheelbases, nevertheless it’s nonetheless longer than most sedans. However that is what makes such vehicles distinctive as producers don’t make them like they used to. 

Execs and Cons

Execs

1998 Toyota Cresta

Nice Inside High quality

Japanese producers didn’t go flawed once they had been making luxurious sedans. On the time of manufacturing of the Toyota Cresta, there was a excessive demand for luxurious sedans, so competitors between producers to supply the last word luxurious sedan was excessive. Exterior luxurious touches weren’t sufficient for the Toyota Cresta to remain in competitors with automobiles such because the Nissan Cedric. 

The primary-gen Cresta, X50-X60, comes with a luxurious material inside. If you wish to purchase one, you’ll discover it with the unique inside nonetheless wanting recent from the manufacturing facility. It may be soiled however nonetheless higher than most JDM classics’ interiors. Toyota started utilizing leather-based seats within the second technology of manufacturing on high-spec fashions such because the Tremendous Lucent G. 

On the time of manufacturing, the Cresta was forward of its time because it was geared up with powered seats, home windows, doorways, rearview mirrors, and rear window defrosters. There’s an opportunity that these won’t work while you buy the automotive, however nothing some wiring work and fuse alternative received’t repair. 

Rear-Wheel-Drive

For a automotive that weighs over 3200 kilos, you’ll want it to be rear-wheel-drive or all-wheel drive. The Toyota Cresta was made as a front-engine rear-wheel-drive automotive, with some fashions being geared up with an LSD. Surprisingly in 1993, Toyota made AWD elective for the X90 Cresta Touring spec, however these are uncommon and costly. An X90 Cresta Touring will price 2 or 3 instances greater than any Cresta, relying on its situation. 

Being rear-wheel-drive makes the Cresta a superb drift automotive funds construct, as you’ll be able to simply discover one listed for round $6,000. In the event you discover one with an LSD, you might be in luck, as you received’t have to put in one or weld the rear diff. 

The Cresta additionally handles properly as a result of it’s RWD. You don’t have to fret about lack of traction when cruising on mountain roads and understeer when driving on the town. Traction loss can also be minimized by the huge weight pushing down on the rear wheels. 

Extremely Tunable Engine Choices

The Toyota Cresta comes with Toyota’s most tunable engines, the 1JZ, 2JZ, and the 1G engines. Different engines, together with a 2.4-liter turbodiesel, had been utilized in base spec fashions you can not often discover. In addition to, most patrons and even you’ll most likely go for one with a 1G or JZ engine when shopping for a Cresta. 

The 1G engines had been used all through Cresta’s manufacturing. Within the first-gen and second-gen Cresta, you get the 1G-EU and the two.0-liter DOHC 1G-GEU. The 1G-EU made round 110 horsepower on the time of manufacturing, whereas the 1G-GEU made an additional 40 horsepower. 

As a result of age of those engines, you’ll be able to solely squeeze round 250 horsepower with inventory internals. Something above that, you’ll be risking a cracked engine block or damaged piston rods. Nevertheless, suppose you determine to rebuild the engine with new cast internals and improve the turbo and a brand new exhaust system. In that case, you’ll simply recover from 400 horsepower. 

Different 1G engine variants used embrace the 1G-GZE, 1G-GE, and 1GFE. These engines can deal with the same energy output because the 1G and 1G-GEU, aside from the 1G-GE and 1G-GTE, that are thought of essentially the most tunable 1G engines. You’ll be able to simply make 400 horsepower with inventory internals when you get your arms on both.

JZ engine variants accessible within the Cresta embrace; 1JZ-GE, 2JZ-GE, and the 1JZ-GTE (twin-turbocharged), the identical engine used within the MK3 Toyota Supra. With a 1JZ engine, you’ll be able to simply make 500 horsepower with out worrying about its sturdiness, supplied that it’s in good situation. If the engine exhibits indicators of failure, contemplate an engine rebuild earlier than tuning and upgrading supporting parts. 

The 2JZ is the perfect Toyota engine ever made however is just utilized in a number of X90 and X100 Cresta items. Nevertheless, discovering a Cresta with a 2JZ engine is nearly inconceivable since individuals will purchase a Cresta solely to take away the engine and apply it to one other construct. A well-maintained 2JZ will simply make 600-700 horsepower. Nonetheless, you’ll have to put extra work, mods, and cash into the naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE to achieve such figures. 

Read more on 1JZ and 2JZ engines here 

Enjoyable To Drive

When inventory, a Toyota Cresta won’t be fast as you anticipate, even with a 2JZ engine. However to start out with, it wasn’t constructed to be quick. It was made to be luxurious and comfy, and the engine choices had been solely put there to deal with its huge weight. Higher than the fuel-gobbling UZ V8 engine. 

The Toyota Cresta is a automotive you are taking out on a Sunday night cruise on the freeway and backroads. Get pleasure from that straight piped JZ engine music as you make reminiscences with your pals or household. At instances like these, one may simply choose a Cresta over a Supra because it presents what the Supra can not, three extra further seats for whoever you determine to tackle a drive with. 

Cons

Toyota Cresta JZX100 Roulant G

Too Heavy For a Drift Automobile

The Toyota Cresta ticks all drift automotive necessities besides the burden necessities. Most drifting professionals recommend {that a} drift automotive ought to weigh round 2000 to 2900 kilos if you wish to maintain a drift for longer or when drifting in tandem and also you don’t wish to lag behind your crew. 

When inventory, a Cresta weighs round 3200 kilos. Suppose you determine so as to add modifications similar to a roll cage, chassis bracing, and suspension upgrades. In that case, you might be growing the automotive’s weight and needing to take away pointless weight. 

You are able to do this by stripping the inside, which can shed a number of hundred kilos. If this doesn’t lower, transfer on to the physique panels, doorways, hood, and trunk. Since all these are product of heavy steel, change them with strengthened plastic which you are able to do away with later or hold if not broken. In addition to, you wouldn’t wish to harm the manufacturing facility physique panels, doorways, trunk, and hood.

Poor Fuel Mileage

The JZ and 1G engines used within the Toyota Cresta won’t gobble up as a lot gas because the UZ and different V8 engines used within the Crown and Chaser. Nevertheless, they nonetheless have poor gas consumption, particularly when fiddled round. 

That is primarily as a result of weight. Effectively, most of Cresta’s points are weight-related. When inventory, you’ll get round 20mpg on an NA JZ engine which reduces to round 18mpg if the engine is turbocharged. In the event you determine to switch the engine, one of many components that change is the combustion price. Extra gas will get combusted after mixing with air, which will increase gas consumption. 

Most include an Computerized Transmission

Suppose you might be looking for a Toyota Cresta with a guide transmission. In that case, you’ll have to attend longer or purchase an computerized. This can be a shared drawback with luxurious JDM sedans from all producers, together with Nissan and Honda. 

The primary-gen Cresta, X50-X60, was solely bought with a 4-speed computerized transmission. On the manufacturing time, guide transmission automobiles had a greater gas consumption. Nonetheless, computerized transmission automobiles had been simpler to drive and keep. 

Most drivers most well-liked vehicles with an computerized transmission, particularly in automobiles as heavy because the Toyota Cresta. It’s not like they might compete within the Midnight Membership towards sports activities vehicles just like the Nissan Skyline or Toyota Supra. It made extra sense to put in a guide transmission in a Toyota Supra or Celica relatively than a Toyota Cresta or Crown. 

 In order for you a Cresta with a guide transmission, search for one with the turbocharged 1JZ-GTE or the supercharged 1G-GZE. 

Frequent Points

Toyota Cresta 2jz-gte

Failure To Begin 

There are a few the reason why your engine is not going to begin. The 1G and JZ engines have the same construction and share the identical points as you’d anticipate. If the motor will not be beginning, it is best to test the spark plugs, ignition coils, and VVT solenoid, that are among the faultiest parts which may result in so. 

Relying on the driving force’s driving behavior, the spark plugs are changed between 30,000 and 90,000 miles on most engines. However on the Cresta, you advocate changing the spark plugs each 10,000 to fifteen,000 miles. It’s because oil and carbonated soot accumulate on the sparkplugs faster on the 1G and JZ engines. 

If the spark plugs try, test the ignition coil, which delivers voltage to the spark plugs. One of many best methods to know in case you have a defective ignition coil is that if the engine misfires or you have got a reducing gasoline mileage if the spark plugs are in good situation. It is best to change the ignition coil when you additionally discover a tough begin. In addition to, if the automotive nonetheless has its unique alternator or there’s no signal of it being changed, change it earlier than your Cresta stalls on you. 

The VVT (Variable Valve Timing) solenoid is chargeable for the opening and shutting of the oil consumption and exhaust valves. Hardly ever will the VVT solenoid turn out to be defective, however with a 25-year-old engine, anticipate such points to happen. This ought to be a straightforward repair as it’s primarily clogged by sludge from the outdated oil, and all you must do is clear it throughout an oil change. 

Nevertheless, if the problem persists, contemplate changing the VVT solenoid because the display is just too worn out. Whereas at it, you can even change the oil consumption valve or clear it throughout an oil change. If the VVT solenoid is clogged, you’ll discover high-temperature readings, poor gas consumption, and misfires. 

Oxygen Sensor Failure (Excessive Gas Consumption)

The oxygen sensor on 1G and JZ engines is understood to fail at round 30,000 miles or much less if the automotive is in fixed use or has defective parts which result in its failure. It’s chargeable for measuring the quantity of oxygen within the exhaust gases. It sends this knowledge to the ECU, which determines the quantity of oxygen to gas ratio coming into the combustion chamber. 

Suppose the oxygen sensor transmits incorrect knowledge to the ECU. The air-to-fuel ratio can be inefficient, resulting in stalling, misfires, and a tough working engine. Suppose the information is translated that extra air is required. In that case, extra air and gas can be injected into the combustion chamber, reducing gasoline mileage. 

The oxygen sensor is especially contaminated by fumes from the exhaust gases and coolant and oil from a leaky head gasket or cracked cylinder partitions close to the oxygen sensor. No matter how a lot you may wish to do it, you can not clear an oxygen air sensor as you danger it malfunctioning. The perfect answer is to interchange. 

Excessive Oil Consumption 

Excessive oil consumption is predicted in 1G and JZ engines, particularly within the 1G-FE, 1JZ-GTE, and 2JZ. However when oil consumption turns into an excessive amount of, you lose motivation to take your Cresta out on a cruise or to a drift monitor as you can be risking overheating. 

Since these engines are outdated, you’ll be able to cut back oil consumption by changing the valve stem seals and piston rings, decarbonizing the engine, and rebuilding the engine. Suppose the automotive has excessive mileage or exhibits fixed use resulting from worn-out engine parts. In that case, it is best to contemplate changing the valve stem seals and piston rings whereas additionally rebuilding the engine on the identical time. 

If the valve seal is damaged or the piston rings are worn, oil leaks into the combustion chamber, inflicting a rise in gas consumption. You’ll be able to change these individually however since rebuilding the engine can also be an possibility, you’ll be able to change them when rebuilding it. 

Engine decarbonization is whereby all carbon buildup within the engine is eliminated. When carbon deposits construct up on shifting elements, it will increase friction, thus growing oil consumption. Decarbonization won’t assist as a lot as different strategies, nevertheless it’s nonetheless value it. An injector cleansing or an in a single day soak with a beneficial decarbonization formulation may be completed. 

By doing all these in your Cresta, you additionally forestall oil leakages, and also you must also change the oil sensor whereas at it. 

Tough Idle 

As a consequence of outdated age, the gas injectors and air filter on a high-mileage Toyota Cresta will should be cleaned out or changed relying on their situation. If the gas injectors are clogged, they won’t inject the correct amount of gas, which applies to the air filter. A clogged air filter will forestall enough air from moving into the engine, inflicting a tough idle or lack of energy resulting from inefficient combustion. 

You’ll be able to clear the gas injectors and the air filter however changing them is the best choice, particularly if they’ve been on the automotive for a very long time. In the event you plan on growing the engine’s energy output, you’ll improve the gas injectors. 

To keep away from such points sooner or later, you’ll be able to have a compression check completed in your engine. This ensures no put on on the pistons, piston rings, cylinder strokes, and valves. If these are worn out, it may additionally result in all of the above points. 

Common Costs

Toyota Cresta Super Lucent gx7

The Toyota Cresta is kind of reasonably priced even for rookies and youngsters for a automotive you may get with a JZ engine. It additionally makes the proper funds drift construct because it’s RWD and lighter than a few of its alternate options. Costs begin at roughly $4,000, which isn’t dangerous for a automotive with a 6-cylinder engine, be it a 1G-EU or a JJZ-GTE. 

If you’re searching for a excessive spec mannequin, low mileage, or souped-up Toyota Cresta, anticipate to pay greater than the value of a typical one. These often begin at round $7,000 to $20,000, with the fashions with the 1JZ or 2JZ engines being the most costly. However you might be getting a Supra with 4 doorways at a discount. 

View Toyota Cresta Ads for sale

Comparable Alternate options

Fashions and Specs

1980-1984 Toyota Cresta (X50/X60)

TOYOTA CRESTA SUPER LUCENT

The primary-gen Cresta was unveiled in 1980, and it was extra like a short-wheelbase model of the Toyota Crown, which had entered its sixth technology (S110) in 1979. On the time of manufacturing, the Crown had a 2.0-liter engine, 2.4-liter engine, 2.5-liter engine, and a 2.7-liter engine. Solely fashions with a 2.0-liter engine had been generally bought in Japan, however long-wheel-base vehicles needed to adjust to strict tax legal guidelines. 

When the Toyota Cresta went on sale in late 1980, it solely had a 2.0-liter engine in several variants, enabling Toyota to promote extra items than the Toyota Crown. You get the X50/X60 Cresta with a 2.0-liter M-EU engine, 2.0-liter 1G-EU, or 2.0-liter 1G-GEU driving the rear wheels through a 4-speed computerized transmission.

Luxurious trims such because the Tremendous Touring, Tremendous Lucent, Customized, Tremendous Customized, and Tremendous Deluxe had been launched within the second yr of manufacturing. Important variations with the bottom Cresta are powered mirrors, doorways, home windows, and local weather adjustable AC. The seats are additionally wrapped with higher material, and the ground mats are additionally made out of high quality materials. 

On the Exterior, you get chrome surrounding the headlights, rearview mirrors, and taillights as a substitute of plastic on the base-spec fashions. You additionally get wheel caps or alloy wheels which aren’t customary on most vehicles made within the Eighties. 

However Toyota was not solely making a luxurious sedan for the Japanese market to compete with others, such because the Nissan Laurel, they had been additionally making one that might promote worldwide. This led to the creation of the Lexus LS lineup by Lexus, which is Toyota’s luxurious and efficiency unit. 

1984-1988 Toyota Cresta (X70)

Toyota Cresta

The primary-generation Cresta platform was discontinued. The X70 Cresta makes use of a platform just like the one used on the X70 Mark II. In consequence, the second-gen Cresta has extra prolonged physique panels and 4 home windows on either side as a substitute of the 2 home windows on the first-gen Cresta. 

You may most likely surprise why there are 4 home windows, but you’ll be able to solely see two on either side. The entrance door quarter home windows close to the aspect mirrors and the rear door quarter home windows close to the rear windshield are counted as home windows. The entrance fender-mounted rearview mirrors had been eliminated, and within the second-gen Cresta, they sit slightly below the entrance door quarter home windows. 

The 1G-EU and the 1G-GEU 2.0-liter engines had been nonetheless used, and a brand new 2.0-liter turbocharged M-TEU was launched for the second-gen Cresta. You will get an X70 Cresta with a 2.0-liter twin-turbocharged 1G-GTE if you’re fortunate. Just like the X50/X60 Cresta, the X70 Cresta can also be rear-wheel drive and solely comes with a 4-speed computerized transmission. 

It’s also possible to get the X70 Cresta with two 4-cylinder diesel engines. A 2.4-liter 2L (Na) and a 2.4-liter 2L-T (turbodiesel) engine, you are able to do so in a diesel Cresta when you love rolling coal.  

Luxurious trims had related badging and options because the X50/X60 Cresta, however there was a twist within the Tremendous Touring Cresta X70. It was geared up with entrance bucket seats at manufacturing, and the rear seats had been bolstered. The dual-turbo 1G-GTE solely made 185 to 230 horsepower. Nonetheless, this was sufficient energy to ship the driving force and passengers sideways when cornering on the manufacturing time. 

1988-1992 Toyota Cresta (X80)

Toyota Cresta (X80)

There’s not a lot distinction between the X70 and X80 Cresta besides that the X80 Cresta options straightened-out physique traces. The Chaser was initially a Mark II mannequin. Nonetheless, Toyota later produced it independently alongside the Toyota Cressida and Toyota Consolation. 

You get the X80 Cresta with a number of variants of the 1G engine sequence, together with a supercharged 1G-GZE which you may get within the Mark II, Cressida, and Chaser. Regardless of being supercharged, the 1G-GZE made 170 horsepower on the manufacturing time. If you’re searching for a dependable powerhouse, the twin-turbocharged 1G-GTE is a greater possibility. 

Toyota put in a 1JZ-GE and a twin-turbocharged 1JZ-GTE within the X80 Chaser. When it was put in within the X80 Chaser, it made round 230 horsepower which was elevated to 300 horsepower within the Cresta X100, marketed as 280 horsepower as a result of Gentleman’s Settlement of 1988. The 1JZ-GTE was put in within the Cresta GT and Avante, whereas the 1G-GZE within the Tremendous Lucent G. 

A brand new 5-speed guide transmission was additionally launched within the Cresta, primarily put in within the Tremendous Lucent G and GT trims. 

In 1987 when Toyota was Celebrating its 50th Anniversary, the Cresta was one of many few fashions that acquired a facelift and particular Anniversary touches. Anniversary fashions have a golden or silver 50th Anniversary badge and stitching on the seats. Most have the 1G-GTE, which made round 210 horsepower at manufacturing. 

1992-1996 Toyota Cresta (X90)

1994 Toyota Cresta JZX90

The X90 Toyota Cresta went into manufacturing in late 1992. Nonetheless, it was now not a compact class automotive as a result of new prolonged chassis. Toyota aimed extra for different markets exterior Japan and for patrons in Japan who needed a compact class automotive; there was the Toyota Camry and different fashions within the Toyota Corolla lineup. 

Now that the Cresta was not within the Compact Class, fewer items had been produced with a 2.0-liter engine. Solely the 1G-FE was used within the X90 Cresta. A brand new 4-cylinder 4S-FE used within the Toyota Corolla lineup was additionally accessible for Japanese patrons who needed to keep away from excessive street taxes. In Japan, automobiles with decrease displacement engines pay decrease street taxes. 

Extra JZ engines had been used within the X90 Cresta than in its predecessors. In order for you a Cresta with a JZ engine, you’ll desire a JZX90 Cresta. 

The posh sedan market in Japan was so aggressive that Toyota needed to up their recreation for the Japanese market and the worldwide market with rivals similar to Mercedes, Audi, and BMW lurking. The X90 Cresta was now geared up with ABS, an LSD, leather-based seats and steering with heating and cooling performance.

Such options had been elective on excessive spec fashions such because the Tourer and Tremendous Lucent trims. All Tourer trims have the JZ engine. The Tourer S has the two.5-liter 1JZ, whereas the Tourer V has a twin-turbocharged 2.5-liter 1JZ-GTE with an elective 5-speed guide transmission. All base spec fashions and the Tourer S have a 4-speed guide transmission. 

The 2JZ was put in on the Grande and the Grande G with a 4-speed guide transmission. Luxurious sedans in Japan slowly turned a favorite amongst drifters. RWD sports activities vehicles such because the Skyline and Supra had been costly to construct into drift vehicles. 

1996-2001 Toyota Cresta (X100)

Toyota Cresta X100

That is the final technology of the Toyota Cresta produced between 1996-2001. Aside from the two.0-liter 1G-FE, all engines used within the Toyota Cresta have over 2.0-liters of displacement. In Japan, the X100 Cresta was bought both with the two.0-liter 1G-FE or the two.4-liter turbodiesel (2l-LTE) used within the GL trim. 

Different engines embrace the two.5-liter 1JZ-GE, 3.0-liter 2JZ-GE, and the turbocharged 1JZ-GTE, which was tuned as much as over 300 horsepower however with a single turbo, not like its predecessor. Nevertheless, on paper, it was indicated 280 horsepower as a result of Gents’s Settlement. 

Base spec fashions, Grande, primarily have the 1G-FE mated to both a 4-speed computerized or 5-speed guide transmission with an elective LSD, traction management, and ABS. Powered mirrors, rearview mirrors, and seats had been customary on the bottom spec mannequin. 

The Tourer V has the turbocharged 1JZ-GTE, whereas the Tourer S has the 1JZ-GE. The 2JZ is obtainable within the Grande and Grande G. It’s also possible to get the Grande G with the 1JZGE. On excessive spec fashions, patrons may both select a 5-speed guide transmission or a 4-speed guide, besides the Grande G, which was solely bought with a 4-speed computerized transmission. 

FAQ

Is the Toyota Cresta automotive?

The Toyota Cresta excels in no matter you determine to do. It makes the proper automotive for a drift automotive construct, present automotive construct, and even a each day pushed luxurious sedan. Discovering a parking area may be tough as a result of massive wheelbase and tight parking spots in cities and cities. However in case you have a devoted parking space, you’ll be able to drive it to high school or work. 

Is the Toyota Cresta Dependable?

Gas consumption may be a bit on the upper aspect. Nonetheless, the whole lot else relating to upkeep on the Cresta is simple, good, easy, and reasonably priced. You merely can’t go flawed with traditional JDM sedans, particularly if it’s a Toyota.

Does the Toyota Cresta have a 2JZ engine?

Sure. However you’ll be able to solely get the naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE in a Toyota Cresta.

Can I modify a Toyota Cresta?

Sure. You’ll be able to flip the Cresta right into a drift missile, present automotive, or each day driver. JDM sedans have broad aftermarket assist. If a part turns into too onerous to seek out, different Toyota sedans, such because the Mark II, Cressida, and Chaser, from which you’ll supply elements. Aftermarket elements for these vehicles are additionally appropriate with each one in every of them.

Can I set up a V8 in a Toyota Cresta?

In the event you get one with a 4-cylinder 4S-FE or an early manufacturing 1G engine, you may contemplate engine swapping with a UZ or some other V8. Nevertheless, becoming a Toyota engine is extra manageable than some other V8 as no main fabrications and elements are required. However the engine bay measurement mustn’t fear you.

Is the Toyota Cresta identical because the Toyota Chaser, Mark II, and Cressida?

Not likely. However these vehicles share the identical engines and transmissions. The Chaser and Cressida had been first produced as Mark II trims and later independently made.

Find out how to Import a Toyota Cresta

Learn our Final Information on How to Import a Car from Japan.

  • Sources
    • wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Cresta
    • Auto-data.internet/en/toyota-Cresta
    • tc-v.com/specs/toyota/cresta/
    • Starcarnn.ru/en/vehicles/jz
    • http://mywikimotors.com/
Christopher Weydert
Newest posts by Christopher Weydert (see all)

Add comment

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.